How does German logistics manage the supply chain accurately?

source:未知pubdate:2018-10-28 16:57 click:

1. The overall situation of supply chain management in German Enterprises
(1) enterprises are beginning to realize the importance.
In German academia, supply chain management generally refers to the process optimization of products from planning, supplier selection, procurement, production, transportation and distribution to repurchase for end-customer needs. Logistics is a link in supply chain management. Supply chain management involves most of the value chain of goods, which transcends industry and requires close cooperation among all participants. The advantages of implementing supply chain management lie in reducing procurement cost, shortening delivery time, reducing product inventory, improving supplier loyalty and service level.
The logistics management of German enterprises has gone through the following stages:
In the 1970s (traditional logistics, the goal was to optimize the functions of each link): procurement - transportation, transshipment, warehousing - production - transportation, transshipment, warehousing - sales;
In the 1980s (horizontal cross-logistics, the goal was to optimize orders): procurement - traditional logistics - production - traditional logistics - Marketing - customers;
In the 1990s (value chain integrated logistics, the goal was to optimize the value chain): customer orders - R&D (subcontracting to suppliers) - Procurement (subcontracting to suppliers) - production (subcontracting to suppliers) - distribution (subcontracting to suppliers) - recycling (subcontracting to suppliers) - customers;
In twenty-first Century (global value chain integrated logistics, the goal is to establish and optimize the global network).
According to the survey, 81% of German enterprises believe that the implementation of supply chain management will enhance the competitiveness of enterprises. However, only more than 20% of enterprises have established effective supply chain management, because 95% of German enterprises are small and medium-sized enterprises, large enterprises and large-scale medium-sized enterprises attach great importance to supply chain management, while small enterprises by their own size and strength are basically not established supply chain management. According to statistics, 37 to 39% of Germany's large enterprises do not yet have strategic supply chains.
The total cost of supply chain management in Germany accounts for 7% of the total turnover. The profit margin of enterprises implementing supply chain management is two times of that of enterprises not implemented. The average profit margin of standard product manufacturer is 11%, and that of individualized product manufacturer is 9%.
Generally speaking, compared with the United States and other countries with strong service industries, German enterprises, mainly small and medium-sized enterprises, still have a process of accepting the new thing of supply chain management in practice.
(two) main practices of supply chain management enterprises
1, SCOR mode
Most of the enterprises in Germany that implement supply chain management are large enterprises. They all have their own complete supply chain and manage and integrate themselves. The supply chain generally adopts the SCOR model. The SCOR model is recommended by the American Supply Management Association. It can be used to optimize the current supply chain of enterprises. It goes beyond the boundaries of enterprises and departments, pays attention to the partnership between upstream and downstream supply chains, and pays attention to the strategic links and efficient operation of related enterprises.
2, contract logistics mode
The German contract logistics (Kontrakt Logistik), or the third party logistics (3pl) in the United Kingdom and the United States, is similar to the "Li & Fung Model" in Hong Kong from the perspective of contract executing parties. Simply put, contract logistics is a mode that producers or retailers sign long-term contracts with logistics enterprises to outsource the whole logistics link.
Contract logistics is popular in Germany, especially in the supply chain management of export-oriented enterprises. According to incomplete statistics from Kompass Enterprise Exchange Website, Germany has more than 700 contract logistics enterprises, including not only German Post DHL, German Railway Schenker, KU HNE & Nagel, Dachser and Fiege, but also small and medium-sized enterprises such as Grieshaber and Karldischinger. Generally, these enterprises sign contracts with customers for 3-5 years. From the stage of product planning, they enter into the customer's product value chain and create more value for customers through their professional services. German contract logistics companies are mainly active in the automotive, textile, food and frozen products and pharmaceutical industries. In 2008, the market size of German enterprises'supply chain management was 81 billion euros, of which nearly 30% adopted contract logistics model.
It is noteworthy that the outsourcing trend of German enterprises' supply chain management has obviously slowed down. In 2005, when it reached its peak, many enterprises outsourced the entire supply chain. However, according to the German Federation of Industries, the overall outsourcing of supply chain management did not increase in 2010, and some large enterprises will take back the supply chain management part within the enterprise.
(three) no support measures are taken by the state.
Germany is a typical market economy country, except for special circumstances (such as economic crisis) the government intervention in economic life is less. Specifically, the German government has no direct specific support measures to supply chain management enterprises.
Two. Suggestions for developing supply chain management oriented foreign trade enterprises.
As the world's largest manufacturing country, we can't always rely on demographic dividends to lower labor costs. Moreover, the foreign trade environment that our country is facing is increasingly not optimistic. The number of cases against China's "double-sided" is increasing, and it is spreading from developed countries to developing countries. Our manufacturing enterprises should upgrade their industrial structure and strive to occupy the two high-end global value chains, namely R&D and sales. We should strive to develop and promote the supply chain management of enterprises and supply chain management enterprises. Competition in twenty-first Century may no longer be a simple competition among enterprises, but rather a competition between supply chains. Now the trend is that with the deepening of globalization, enterprises are speeding up the pace of strategic alliances. We can consider:
(1) large enterprises should strive to optimize their supply chain.
Chinese enterprises are going out. We need to see the rapid development of China's economy.